They fascinate physics as much as they seduce them. They are black holes. It is not known what is inside them, and this mystery is troubling. But it is also the subject of very serious studies. For this reason, Andrea Ghez became the fourth woman in history to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics. It was awarded in collaboration with Reinhard Genzel and Roger Penrose. They are the scientists of the black hole, and the academy has decided to award them.
For something the same academy says that black holes are “the darkest secrets in the universe”. Penrose is part of the University of Oxford. Using sophisticated mathematical methods, he demonstrated that general relativity leads to the formation of black holes. They are super massive monsters that capture everything around them, including light. They were first proposed by the German Karl Schwarzschild in 1916 and not even Einstein himself believed that such a thing could exist.
But Penrose described them in detail. In their hearts, he said, they hide a singularity in which all known laws of nature cease. His seminal article is still considered the most important contribution to the famous theory since Einstein.
Genzel and Ghez each lead a group of astronomers who have focused on a region called Sagittarius A * since the early 1990s. It’s in the center of our galaxy. Both found an extremely heavy invisible object. No less than four million solar masses. And it pulls the mess of stars and makes them run at breakneck speed. According to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, it is “the most compelling evidence” of the existence of a supermassive black hole.
In addition, Genzel and Ghez developed methods to see through the huge clouds of interstellar gas and dust to the galactic center. We may see Sagittarius A * face to face soon.
The president of the academy referred to the award that black hole researchers had won. «His discoveries break new ground in the research of compact and supermassive objects. These exotic objects still raise many questions that will motivate future research. Not just questions about the internal structure. But also about how we can test our theory of gravity under extreme conditions near a black hole, “said David Haviland.
There is still a lot to know about black holes, such as why general relativity doesn’t work for singularity. This requires the unification of the two pillars of physics, the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. Andrea Ghez encourages students to pursue him. “I hope to inspire other young women in this area. If you are passionate about science, you can do a lot, “he said after the ceremony in Stockholm.” It is very important to convince the younger generation that their ability to question and think is critical to the future of the world. “Perhaps anyone who follows in his footsteps can solve the puzzles in the dark and earn another Nobel Prize in Physics.