How to make a circuit board from scratch


Making a circuit board from scratch can be a bit complicated or simple depending on the level of the person. This is often associated with experts and hobbyists who already have your design but add something that would change existing ones or would like to give your project a professional and lasting finish.

Despite the fact that there is a lot of news about creating a printed circuit board on the Internet, many are not useful or very confused. Here we will guide you step by step to achieve this from scratch.

What materials are required to manufacture a printed circuit board?

Of course, it depends on each project. A number of materials are required to create a printed circuit board, with which a prototype can be created and then manufactured. We will create a short list of sample items. If you are familiar with electronics problems, you know what each component is about. We are talking about:

  • A breadboard with 400 or 800 points

    Various electronic components – Image by Kae – Public domain, Link

  • 3 5mm LED lamps with different colors

  • A 9V battery

  • A 9V battery connector

  • 3 100 kΩ potentiometers

  • An RGB LED lamp

  • Five 470 Ω resistors

  • Five 1 kilohm resistors

  • A 5 x 9 cm perforated printed circuit board with individual holes on each side. For this we will have PCB design software that will serve to have the model the way we want it.

  • A 40w soldering iron or soldering iron for making the welds

  • A solder (tin) with a resin core

  • A pen strip with 40 units

  • Cable series

Requirements for the production of a printed circuit board
  1. The breadboard is taken and the connections of each electrical component are placed in each hole. Be careful as each connection must be made correctly to avoid malfunction.

    Through hole component. By Humanoc, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

  2. It is necessary to have a diagram and the symbology of each component so that when the board is assembled, all of the current flows normally.

  3. We have two within the existing components. What we will explain below:

    1. Through hole: These are passive or active components with legs that are inserted into small holes to be attached to the plate by welding.

    2. SMD: They are also passive or active components with brackets that adhere to the plate with pad solder. They are currently the most used

  1. Surface mount component (SMD)

    We connect these components as necessary to create the circuit according to our scheme or diagram. Here we need the 470 ohm resistor, an LED and the 9V battery. The battery and resistor should face each other. The LED lamp is inserted on one side, which lights up when everything is connected properly.

  2. Another variant of this circuit uses LED lamps in different colors as well as potentiometers, which serve to give the lights different power levels, which shine more or less as programmed. For this we connect the 470 ohm resistor with a negative cable. The plus cable must be connected to the LEDs. The order would be: LED, resistor, potentiometer and battery.

Simple circuit with several LEDs. Image by Experi – Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0, link

Creating an electronic circuit with a motherboard is easy. At least in this reported experiment. We just need to be clear about the circuit to create (schematic) and maintain the necessary components. In addition, we need to be very careful with the connections to ensure that the model works properly.

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