# The Eiffel Tower varies its height depending on the temperature

Did you know that the height of the Eiffel Tower varies about fifteen centimeters throughout the year because it is built with iron. It grows with heat and contracts when the temperature drops. This change in size is related to the expansion coefficient of iron. Some materials expand in hot weather and contract in the cold. However, the magnitude of these variations depends on the material. Iron, with which the Eiffel Tower was built, is one of those that expands and contracts the most.

##### Why does the height of the Eiffel Tower vary?

The height of the Eiffel Tower varies due to the thermal expansion of iron. When temperatures rise, metal expands. This phenomenon is known as thermal expansion.

Iron, which is the main material of the tower, is sensitive to temperature changes. On hot days, the tower can grow up to 15 centimeters. When temperatures drop, iron contracts. This contraction reduces the height of the Eiffel Tower, showing how climate affects its structure.

The variation in size is due to the expansion coefficient of the iron. This coefficient measures how much a material expands or contracts with changes in temperature. The design of the Eiffel Tower considered these effects. Engineers adjusted their calculations to ensure the stability and safety of the structure in any climate.

##### The engineering behind the design of the Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower, designed by Gustave Eiffel, is a landmark of 19th century engineering. He built it for the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris. He used wrought iron, which was a new material for his time and which allowed for a lighter and stronger structure. The tower measures 324 meters high, including its antenna.

The shape of the tower follows a parabolic curve that distributes the weight and allows it to be more resistant to wind. Engineers calculated each piece to ensure stability and safety. It has four pillars that curve inwards. They are what support the structure and provide it with a solid foundation. Each piece of iron is held together by more than two million rivets.

Engineers considered dilation in the design. Therefore, the tower expands and contracts with changes in temperature, maintaining the integrity of the structure. Eiffel’s design was ahead of its time, incorporating principles still used today.

##### Similar cases in other famous structures

Many famous structures also experience size changes due to temperature. The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, for example, can expand or contract by about two meters.

The Empire State Building in New York also undergoes variations in its height. During the hottest days, the building can grow up to 15 centimeters due to the thermal expansion of the steel.

In Dubai, the Burj Khalifa also faces these changes. The world’s tallest tower can rise several centimeters when temperatures peak.

Tower Bridge in London shows minor changes, but they are still notable. Its metal structure expands and contracts, affecting the height and alignment of the moving sections.

Designing considering thermal expansion is crucial for the stability and safety of these structures. It is one of the challenges faced by the engineers and architects responsible for these constructions.

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