We’ve been hearing a lot about the meaning of RNA lately, and it’s not new to have it among the top ten most searched terms on internet search engines in 2021. This younger brother of DNA has the property of being vital for the synthesis of proteins in DNA cells. That is, the DNA contains the genetic information of every cell and the RNA ensures that every cell can understand this information. The biggest difference between RNA and DNA is that the first is one chain and the second is the double chain.
Different types of RNA
Both acids have different differences, such as: B. the sugar they are made of and their molecular weight. Because of this, there are different types of ribonucleic acids, which leads to a better understanding of the functions that each one performs.
- Messenger, or mRNA, enables proteins to be synthesized in the cell by providing the DNA code.
- Transfer or tRNA facilitates protein synthesis by transporting amino acids
- Ribosomals, or rRNA located in ribosomes, allow reading of mRNAs to facilitate the absorption of proteins.
- Regulators who can take on certain tasks, e.g. B. the regulation of gene expression or the suppression of some genes.
- Catalyst activates the synthesis processes to make them more efficient.
- Mitochondria, the mitochondria of cells, have their own protein synthesis, which is why this type of mitochondrial RNA exists.
Meaning of rna
RNA is an important part of cells, both prokaryotes (which do not have a nucleus) and eukaryotes (which contain a nucleus). The molecular weight of RNA is lower than that of DNA. It’s also worth noting that RNA is found in some viruses as a unique genetic material.
Ribonucleic acid became popular in 2021 thanks to the Covid 19 pandemic. Messenger RNA has become the main ingredient in vaccines developed by various laboratories around the world (some of which are BioNTech, Pfizer, and Moderna).
RNA was discovered in the 19th century, more precisely in 1867, by Professor Fiedrich Mlescher, who called it nucleus and isolated it from the cell nucleus. Shortly afterwards, he discovered that RNA was also present in prokaryotic cells that do not have a nucleus. The synthesis of proteins in cells was discovered as early as the 20th century, in 1959. This discovery earned the Spanish doctor Severo Ochoa Albornoz the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
By understanding how ribonucleic acid works and its vital importance at the cellular and evolutionary level, various theses about the origin of humans have been made. One of these theses suggests that the first life forms to appear on earth may have been RNA molecules.