The monarchy of England is one of the oldest and most prestigious institutions in the world. For centuries, members of the royal family played a crucial role in the history and culture of the United Kingdom. There were others named Charles among the personages of the British crown. Previously, only two monarchs had the name Charles. Charles I and Charles II, who were father and son and reigned in the 17th century.
He became king in 1625, at the age of 25, by the death of his father, King James I. Shortly after taking office, his marriage to Henrietta Marie of France brought him problems with Parliament, as she was Catholic. Throughout his reign the problems persisted due to economic issues. As a consequence, he failed in the war with Spain and then with France.
He then abolished Parliament and ruled 11 years in an absolutist manner. In 1642 a civil war broke out and the House of Commons promoted a trial against the king, in which he was found guilty of high treason and a few days later died beheaded.
Charles II, the restored king.
After the beheading of Charles I, England had an 11-year republican period that was called Commonwealth. However, due to political problems, they decided to restore the monarchy and proclaimed Charles II king.
Charles II was king of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1660 until his death in 1685. He is known as the “restored king” because his accession to the throne marked the end of the Puritan republic and the restoration of the monarchy in England. During his reign, Charles II promoted religious tolerance and encouraged the development of science and art in the country. He was the last Catholic king.
Charles III: the current king
Prince Charles, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, is the heir to the British throne due to the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II. Charles was an active member of the royal family for decades and played an important role in promoting environmental and social causes. He is also known for his love of farming and country life.
There was a Charles who was unable to assume the throne
Charles Edward Stuart, also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, was a Jacobite pretender to the British throne. He was born in 1720 in Rome, Italy, the son of Prince James Francis Edward Stuart and Princess Mary Clementina Sobieska. The Jacobites were supporters of the Stuart dynasty and wanted to restore them to the British throne after they were deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
In 1745, Charles Edward Stuart led a Jacobite rebellion in Scotland, aiming to overthrow King George II and restore the Stuarts to the throne. His army won several victories, but was finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Charles Edward Stuart fled to Europe and never returned to Britain. He spent much of his life in exile and died in Rome in 1788.