It doesn’t matter whether it’s the United States or Latin America. The average life expectancy of women is higher. 81 years versus 76 years for men. Because it happens? It is clear that women live longer than men. Two biological causes and one social cause cause it. Says Virginia Zarulli, professor at the University of Southern Denmark.
The first has to do with differences in sex hormones. Cisgender women produce more estrogen and less testosterone than men. And estrogen protects against cardiovascular disease. This is supported by a 2017 study published in the journal Biology of Sex Differences, cited by LiveScience.
When you have a lot of testosterone you are at higher risk for a number of diseases. For example breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. The hormone has been linked to risky behavior and higher levels of aggression. The risk of dying at an earlier age increases, explains Zarulli.
The second cause is genetic. Humans have two sex chromosomes: X and Y. Cisgender women have two X chromosomes and men have an X and a Y.
“The Y chromosome is an X chromosome with a missing leg. There is a lack of genetic material. Women have this double X chromosome as additional genetic material. It is plan B if a malignant mutation occurs on one of the two X chromosomes. “Zarulli emphasizes, quoted by LiveScience.
Zarulli recalls a 2018 study that suggested that girls have a higher survival rate than boys. This in environments with particularly high mortality rates (famine, epidemics).
Men smoke and drink alcohol more often than women. 35% of men smoke compared to 6% of women. They tend to eat healthily. Men prefer fried foods and fast food. And then we wonder why women live longer than men.